Geography: Multipurpose Projects

Posted by WBCSguru -

Multipurpose Projects:

  1. Bhakra Nangal Project:
    • it is the largest in India on Sutlej River. It's a joint venture of Punjab, Harayana and Rajasthan.
    • it has five purposes:(i)Two dams at Bhakra and Nangal(ii)Nangal hydel channel(iii>Powerhouse of 1,204 MW (iv)Electric transmission and(v)Bhakra canal system for irrigation.
    • Bhakra Dam is near Roopnagar, Ropar dist. The dam is 226m in height, 518m in length, 312m in width; behind it is Govind Sagar Lake.
    • Bhakra Dam is near Roopnagar, Ropar dist. The dam is 226m in height, 518m in length, 312m in width; behind it is Govind Sagar Lake.
    • Nangal Hydel Channel 64.4km long, 42.65m wide and 6.28m deep
    • Powerhouse of 1204 MW first near Gangunal. Second Kotla, third near Roopnagar and fourth and fifth near Bhakradam.
    • Bhakra canal 171 km long, maximum water at Haryana (46.7%), then Punjab (37.7% and then Rajasthan (15.6%)
  2. Damodar Valley Project:
    • Damodar is a tributary of Hughly river in Bengal and has four dams. It was setup on 19th Feb 1948 on the recommendation of W.L. Vordouin, the person who setup TVA in America.
    • The four dams are:
      1. Tilaiya dam on Barakar River; started in 1950 and completed in 1953. Its length is 366m, and maximum width is 30m. It is the only concrete dam in the area. It has two power stations of 2,000 KW each.
      2. Konar dam on Konar River is in Hazarihagh. 3549 m long, maximum height 49m, completed in 1955. It supplies electricity to Bokaro Steel Project. Maithan dam on the confluence of Barakar and Damodar Rivers, 994m long and maximum height is 49m, completed in 1958, capacity is 60 MW.
      3. Panchet hill dam on Damodar river, completed in 1959, dam is 2545m long and maximum height is 49m, generates 40MW.
      4. Durgapur Barrage23km from Raniganj, stores irrigation water of 4 DVC dams, it is 83 lm long and 12m high.
  3. Hirakud Dam:
    • 61m high, 4801m long, on Mahandi rivers(orissa)
    • It is the largest dam in India and one of the largest dams of the world with the gross storage capacity of 8100 Million cubic meters.
    • Two more dams have been built on Mahanadi Tibrapar and Naraj
  4. Kosi Project:
    • It was started in 1955 with five objectives:(i)Irrigation (ii)Flood control(iii)Power generation(iv)Land reclamation and(v)Fishing and Navigation.
    • There are three units at this Kosi Project:
      1. A barrage near Hanumannagar (Nepal), 1149m long 72m high, Constructed in 1965.
      2. Flood embankments, built 1959, 270km Eastern Kosi canal, 43.5km long
      3. A powerhouse of 20 MW, has been installed, which is shared by both India and Nepal.
  5. Rihand Valley Project:
    • 934m long. 92m high dam on river Rihand a tributary of Sone, near Pipri in Mirzapur
    • Govind Ballabh PantSagar, is the largest map made reservoir in India.
    • One more project has been built at Ovea on Rihand River.
  6. Chambal Valley Project:
    • It is a joint venture of M.P and Rajasthan started in 1954 on Chambal River (tributary of Yamuna)
    • In the first stage the dam was 64m high and 514m long, was called Gandhi Sagar Dam, it is in chaurasigarh near Bhanpura, built in 1960.
    • In the second stage, one more dam was built which was 54m high and 1143m long was named Ranapratap Masonry Dam. It is 56km from Rawatbhata
    • In the third stage, the dam was 548m long and 45m high called Jawahar Sagar dam at Kota Dam, constructed in 1971.
  7. Tungbhadra Project:
    • It is a joint venture of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
    • The dam is 50m high and 2,441m long on Tungbhadra River (a tributary of Krishna)
    • It is built in Bellary dist. of Karnataka
    • There are canals on both sides of the dam.
    • There are three power stations.
  8. Gandak Project:
    • Joint venture of Bihar and U.P
    • This project has 7.47m long and 9.81m high barrage at Bhansolotan in Valmikinagar in Bihar
    • The project was completed in 1967
    • Head Regulator is at Triveni
    • The barrage has four canal two each for India and Nepal
  9. Narmada Valley Project:
    • Narmada originates near Amarkantak Plateau (M.P)
    • It is the fifth largest river in India.
    • The project aims to have 29 major and 3,000 small dams -The project was concieved in 1945-46.
    • The largest project is Sardar Sarovar Project has the capacity of 77 lakh hectare and will provide is irrigation to 17.92 lakh hectares in Gujarat.
    • Two power stations will produce 1,450 MW of hydroelectricity
    • Second major project is Narmada Sagar project started in 1984.
  10. Nagaraiuna Sagar Project:
    • Started in 1955-56, the dam is on Krishna River in Nalgonda district.
    • Its height is 124.7m and length is 1450m.
    • It has two canals Jawahar on the right and Lai Bahadur canal on the left
    • The powerhouse has two units, 50 MW each.
  11. Vyas Project (BEAS):
    • It is a joint venture of Punjabi, Haryana and Rajasthan,
    • It has two parts, Beas Sutlej link and Pong dam,
    • Beas Sutlej is 61 m high,
  12. Ramganga Project:
    • Ramganga is a tributary of Ganga.
    • Aim of the project is to provide irrigation facilities to about 6 lakh hectares of land in western U.P, to supply 20 cusecs of drinking water to Delhi and to control the floods in western and central U.P
    • This project includes:
      A 625.8m long and 125.6m high earth and rock filled dam across the Ramganga river and a Saddle dam of height 75.6m across the Ghuisot steam near Kalagarh in dist of Garhwal Across the river a 546m long weir at Hereoli
    • A feeder canal, 82km in length originating from Hereoli River Remodelling of 3388km of existing dam and 3880km long new branch canals A powerhouse on the river at its right bank with an installed capacity of 198 MW.
  13. Mayurakshi Project:
    • Mayurakshi is a tributary of the Hughli River
    • Purpose behind this project is four fold:(i)Create irrigation potential,(ii) Generate power, (iii) Control floods and (iv)Control erosion.
    • A barrage is constructed across the Mayurakshi River at Tilpara.
    • Two irrigational canals are attached with the Tilpara barrage with total length of 1367 km and providing irrigation in West Bangal and Bihar 4,000 KW of electricity is supplied to Birbhum, Murshidabad and Santhal Pargana, which is generated by this project.
  14. Indira Gandhi Canal Project:
    • It is the world's largest irrigation project to provide irrigation to semi arid and arid regions of Rajasthan.
    • Water from Pong barrage built over Beas River is being utilized.
    • Indira Gandhi canal once completed will provide irrigation to about 12.51akh hectares of land in Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Ganganagar dist of Rajasthan.
    • It has two stages, in the first stage construction of the Rajasthan feeder, 189 km long Rajasthan main and about 3,183km long distribution have been taken. The second stage comprises the construction of the remaining part of the Rajasthan main canal and 5,409km long distributaries.
  15. Pochampad Project:
    • This irrigation project is the second largest project in Andhra Pradesh.
    • It involve 812m in length and 43m of height masonry dam on the Godavari River in Adilabad district.
    • The storage capacity of the dam is 230.36 cross m3 -A canal of length 112.63km will provide irrigation facilities in Karimnagar and Adilabad districts .
  16. Tehri Dam Project:
    • Alaknanda is the river on which this dam is being constructed in Tehri district of Uttranchal.
    • Motives behind this project is to collect the flood water of the Bhagirathi and the Bhilangana rivers in a large reservoir behind the dam Hydroelectricity generation, To provide irrigation facilities to agricultural land in the westem U.P.
    • Tehri dam has a distinction of highest rock fill dam in the country,
    • 2,70,000 hectares of agricultural land in western U.P and Delhi with the supply of 300 cusecs is going to be facilitated by this project.
    • 2,400 MW is the installed capacity of power generation A concrete dam at Kateshwar, 22km away from the Tehri dam will impound water released by the Tehri dam, from where another 400 MW of electricity will be generated.
  17. Farraka Barrage Project:
    • River Navigation and to augment the water flow river is the main objective of this project. A barrage across the Ganga River, 2,240 in length to maintain 271akh cu sec of flood discharge 60,000 cusec of floodwater flow to be maintained by a barrage across the Bhagirathi river length will be 213 m. A feeder canal 38.38km in length to divert 40,000 cusecs of water to Hughli River.
    • Providing infrastructure to develop river navigation and To build a rail cum road bridge to connect West Bengal with North East India.
  18. Machkund Project:
    • It is a joint venture of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.
    • A dam of height 54m and 410 m in length, has been constructed on Machkund river.
    • Project includes a powerhouse with 115 MW as the installed capacity.
  19. Parambikulam Project:
    • This Project is a joint venture of Kerala and Tamil nadu.
    • Under this project 185 MW of electricity will be generated and 1.01 lakh hectare of land will be irrigated.
    • Water of 8 small rivers would be utilised.
  20. Mahi Project:
    • It is on Mahi River, which has its origin in Vindhyas in Dhardis of M.P.
    • Is stage 796 m in length and 21m of height dam is being constructed at Banakbori village. This stage also has 74km long canals to irrigate 1.86 hectares of land.
    • 2nd stage construction of a dam of 1,430m in length and 58 m high to irrigation 80,000 of area near kodana.
    • A generation of 40 MW of electricity with irrigation of 2.75 lakh hectares of land is going to be done by this project.
  21. Kakrapara Project:
    • Project is in Gujarat on Tapti River.
    • Project involves a dam 14 m high and 621m long.
    • 2.27 lakh hectares of land will be irrigated with the help of two canals of 505 km and 837 km in length.
  22. Koyna Project:
    • In Maharashtra, on Koyna river.
    • Project involves construction of a dam 250 m in height.
  23. Hansdev Bango Project:
    • Project involves construction of a 85m high stone dam on Hansdev river in M.P.
    • It will irrigate 3.28 lakh hectares of land and also be used for industrial purposes.
  24. Bargi Project:
    • It is on river Bargi near Jabalpur in M.P.
    • It is a multipurpose project once completed will irrigate 2.45 lakh hectares of land. 25, Bhima Project.
    • This project includes construction of two dams -One dam on river Pabna near Pune in Maharashtra, which will be 1,319 m long and 42m high.
    • Other dam with a length of 2467m and a height of 56.4m will be constructed on river Krishna in Sholapur district of Maharastra.
  25. Some other Projects are:
    1. Jayakwadi Project: on Godavri in Maharashtra.
    2. Ukai Project: on River Tapti in Gujarat.
    3. Puma Project: on River Puma in Maharashtra.
    4. Periyar Project: on River Periyar in Kerala.
    5. Saharawasi Hydel Project: near Jog water falls in Karnataka.
    6. Tawa Project: on Tawa River. M.P.
    7. Mata Teela Dam: on River Betwa, Jhansi; U.P,
    8. Kunda Project: Tamil Nadu.
    9. Sabrigiri Project: Kerala.
    10. Balimela: Orissa.
    11. Salal: on River Chenab
    12. Kalindi: Karnataka
    13. Idduki: Kerala
    14. Bhadra: on River Bhadra, Karnataka.
    15. Kukadi: Maharashtra
    16. Naptha Jhakri: Himachal Pradesh.
    17. Dulhasti: Jammu and Kashmir on river Chenab.
    18. Girna: on river Girna, Maharashtra
    19. Jawai Project: on River Jawai, Rajasthan
    20. Jakham Project: Rajasthan
    21. Parwati Project: River Parwat, Rajasthan
    22. Orai Project: River Orai, Rajasthan
    23. Singrauli Super Power Project: Uttar Pradesh

Hydroelectric Plants:
  1. Andhra Pradesh: lower silent, upper Sileru, Machkund, Nizam, Sagar, Nagarjun Sagar, Shri Sailam (Krishna)
  2. Bihar: Kosi
  3. Gujarat: Ukai (Tapi), Kadana (Mahi)
  4. Punjab and Himachal Pradesh: Bhakara Nangal on Satluj, Dchar on Beas, Giri Bata, Andhra, Binwa, Rukti, Rongtong, Bhabanggar, Bassi, Baira Siul, Chamera, Nathpa Jhakri on Sutlej (biggest hydel power project in India)
  5. Jharkhand: Subarnarekha, Maithon, Panchet, Tilaiya (all three under DVC)
  6. Karnataka: Tungbhadra, Sarawati, Kalinadi, Mahatma Gandhi (Jog fall), bhadra, ShivaSamudram(Kaveri), Shimasapur, Munirabad, Lingnamakki
  7. Kerala: Idduki (Periyar), Sabrigiri, Kuttiaddy, Sholayar, Sengulam, Pallivasal, Kallada, Neriamangalam, Parambikulam Aliyar, Poringal, Ponniyar
  8. Madhya Pradesh: Gandhi Sagar (Chambal), Pench, Bargi (Narmada), BansagarTons
  9. Maharashtra: Koyana, Bhivpuri(Tata Hydroelectric works), Khopli, Bhola, Bhira, Purna, Vaiterna, Paithon, Bhatnagar Feed.
  10. Orissa: Hirakund (Mahanadi), Balimela.
  11. Rajasthan: Ranapratap Sagar and Jawahar Sagar (Chambal)
  12. Uttar Pradesh: Rihand, Khodri, Chibro (Tons).
  13. Uttaranchal: Tehri Dam (Bhagirathi)
  14. Tamil Nadu : Pykara, Mettur, Kodyar, Sholayar, Allayar. Sakarpathi, Moyar, Suruliyar, Papanasam.
  15. West Bengal: Panchet.
  16. Jammu and Kashmir: Lower Jhelum, Salal (Chenab), Pool Hasti ,and Karrah.
  17. North Eastern States:
    • Nagaland: Dikhu, Doyang
    • Tripura: Gomuti
    • Manipur: Loktak
    • Assam: Kopi
    • Meghalaya: Khandong and Kyrdemkulai
    • Mizoram: Selrui and Barabi
    • Arunachal Pradesh: Ranganadi.


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