Geography: Indian Industries

Posted by WBCSguru -

Classification of Industries
Industries may be classified as follows:

  1. On the basis of source of raw materials used:
    • Agro based: cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
    • Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.
  2. According to their main role:
    • Basic or key industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.
    • Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
  3. On the basis of capital investment:
    • A small scale industry is defined with reference to the maximum investment allowed on the assets of a unit. This limit has changed over a period of time. At present the maximum investment allowed is rupees one crore. If investment is more than one crore on any industry then it is known as a large scale industry.
  4. On the basis of ownership:
    • Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
    • Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
    • Joint sector industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sector.
    • Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. They pool in the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately such as the sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.
  5. Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:
    • Heavy industries such as iron and steel
    • Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.

Agro Based Industries:
Cotton, jute, silk, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industry are based on agricultural raw materials.
  • Textile Industry: The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy, because it contributes significantly to industrial production (14 per cent), employment generation (35 million persons directly – the second largest after agriculture) and foreign exchange earnings (about 24.6 per cent). It contributes 4 per cent towards GDP. It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products.
    First modern cotton Textile mill was set up in 1818 at Fort Gloster near Calcutta. Second important was founded in 1854 in Bombay by C.N. Devar.
    Today, there are nearly 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country. About 80 per cent of these are in the private sector and the rest in the public and cooperative sectors. Apart from these, there are several thousand small factories with four to ten looms.

    Highest is Maharashtra in Cotton textile Production 42.49%, but in Cotton Yarn Maharashtra produces only 16.65%. In Maharashtra there are total 122 mills out of which 63 mills are in Mumbai, so Mumbai is called Cottonopolis. Other centres in Maharashtra are Sholapur, Pune, Kojjiapur, Satara, Nagpur, Aurangabad, Amravati and Jalgaon.
    Second highest Gujarat, which produces 23.5% of cloth and 8% of yarn of India It has 118 mills, out of which 73 are in Ahmadabad, other mills are in Surat, Vadodra, Rajkot, Porbandar, Maurvi and Bhavnagar.
    Fifth is West Bengal 3.87% of total cloth and 2.94% of cotton yarn.Most important centre is Murshidabad, others are in Howrah, Hugli, Syampur, Shrirampur and Panihar.
    India exports yarn to Japan. Other importers of cotton goods from India are U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries.

    India exports cotton textile highest to U.S, then to Russia and then to U.K.
  • Jute Textiles:India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh. There are about 70 jute mills in India. Most of these are located in West Bengal, mainly along the banks of the Hugli river, in a narrow belt (98 km long and 3 km wide). First Jute Mill in 1855 in Rishra.In W. Bengal, centres are Balli, Rishra, Serampore, Budge Budge, Shamnagar, Saikia, Bansberia, Uluberia, Titagarh, Agrapora, Birlapure.
    Causes of Mills in Bengal:
    1. The Ganga Bhrahmaputra delta grows about 90% of India's jute and therefore provides raw material to jute mills.
    2. Coal is easily obtained from Raniganj.
    3. Abundant water is available for processing, washing and dyeing of jute.
    4. Humid climate is very convenient for spinning and weaving.
    5. Kolkata is a big city of import and export.
    6. Population is high so labour is cheap.
    1. The jute industry supports 2.61 lakh workers directly and another 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers who are engaged in cultivation of jute and mesta. Many more people are associated indirectly.

      Challenges faced by the industry include stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes and from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.

      In 2005, National Jute Policy was formulated with the objective of increasing productivity, improving quality, ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per hectare.

      The main markets are U.S.A., Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, U.K. and Australia.
    2. Woolen Textile:First woolen modern industry is Lal imli, near Kanpur in 1876. Dhariwal in Punjab in 1881, Mumbai in 1882 and Bangalore in 1886. Today there are 621 big and small mills in India. Punjab has 297 mills, maximum in Dhariwal, other centres are Amritsar, Ludhiana and Kharar. Causes: hydroelectricity Bhakara Nangal dam; water from Kashmir and Kumoun region.
      Woolen Carpets: India has 240 units; 90% ofthe production is exported to USA, Britain, Canada and Australia.
      Hosiery: Ludhiana is the largest.
    3. Silk Textile:Here are 4 variations of silk: mulberry, tassar, muga and irie.
      • Distribution
        1. Karnataka: 70% of mulberry silk of the country; impotant centres are Mysore, Banglore, Kolar, Mandya, Tumkur, Belgaun and Kodagu.
        2. West Bengal: 13% of total silk mainly mulberry; important centres are Murshidabad, Bankura, 24 Parganas and Birbhum.
    4. Exports to USA, Russia and Saudi Arabia.
    5. Synthetic Fibre:
      • Travancore Rayons ltd. is at Raipuram, Kerala in 1950.
      • National Rayon company is at Mumbai.
      • Sirsilk Ltd. Hyderabad.
      • There are 6 types of Synthetic fibres:
        1. Rayon: centres at Kagajnagar,Junagarh (Gujarat), Raipuram (Kerala), Udhana (Gujarat), Birlagram (H.P.), Nagada (M.P), Kota (Rajasthan), Kalyan, Pimpri, Pune, Goregaun (Maharashtra), Mettupalayam (T.N.), Kanpur (U.P), Triveni (W.B)
        2. Nylon Filament Yarn Unit : at Kota, Pimpri, Pune, Bhosari, Mumbai, Nagpur, Modinagar, Vadodara, Chennai, Banglore, Barauni, Triuvananthpuram, Kanpur, Ujjain and Calcutta.
        3. Nylon Stable Fibre: at Kota and Mumbai.
        4. Nylon Tyre Cord Unit: at Kota, Mumbai, Chennai, Kalyan, Kanpur, Goregaon, New Delhi
        5. Polyster Staple Fibre : Thane, Ahmedabad, Vadodra,, Gaziabad, Mandi, Kota.
        6. Polyster filament YarnUnit: Mumbai, Kota, Pimpri, Pune, Modinagar, Ujjain, Udhna and Vadodara.
    6. Sugar Industry: India stands second as a world producer of sugar after Cuba but occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. There are over 460 sugar mills in the country spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat along with Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. Sixty per cent mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. First factory set up in 1840 in North Bihar with Dutch help.

    Mineral based Industries:Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries.
    • Iron and Steel Industry:
      • Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1. Some quantities of manganese, are also required to harden the steel. Today with 32.8 million tons of steel production, India ranks ninth among the world crude steel producers. It is the largest producer of sponge iron. Inspite of large quantity of production of steel, per capita consumption per annum is only 32 kg.
      • First modern unit was established in 1830 at Porto Novo in T.N. but the real beginning of modern factory was in 1907 named TISCO in Jamshedpur (formerly Sakchi); IISCO in 1919 atBurnpur (W.B);
      • Mysore Steel Works Bhadrawati 1923, now called Visvesaraya Iron and Steel Works.Second Five Year Plan came up with 3 plants 1. Bhilai; 2. Rourkela; 3. Durgapur.
      • India is the tenth largest producer in the world.
      • In 1973, SAIL was established, it started to manage following industries: Bhilai; Durgapur; Rourkela; Bokaro; Burnpur; Alloy Steel Plant at Durgapur and Salem Steel Plant; Visvesraya Iron and Steel Ltd. in 1989.
      • Top 10 Steel plants are:
        1. TISCO (1907) by Jamshedji Tata. Causes for its establishment:
          • High grade haematite ore was available from Nauwa Mundi mines of Singbhum and Gurumahisani mines in Mayurhanj.
          • Coal was available in Jharia and Raniganj.
          • Manganese from Joda mines of Keonjhar dist. of Orissa. Dolomite, Limestone and fireclay was available at Sundargarh (Orissa).
          • Sufficient water from Suwarnarekha river. Better transport and high population density in Bihar. TISCO's storage is at Gopalpur (Orissa).
        2. IISCO: it has three plants, Kulti in 1864; Hirapur 1908; Burnpur 1937, all in W.B.; all these merged to become IISCO in 1937.Why IISCO was formed:
          • Iron ore is available from Guna mines in Singhbhum and from Gurumahisani, from Mayurbhanj.
          • Gets power from DVC and coal from Raniganj.
          • Connected to Calcutta.
          • Cheap labour.
        3. Visvesraya Iron and Steel Ltd:
          Earlier name was Mysore ISCO, established in 1923. Located at Bhadravati, Shimoga dist. in Karnataka. It was put under state control in 1962 and named Visvesarya Iron and Steel Ltd. Why at Bhadrawati:
          • Bhadrawati valley is 13 km. wide, as a result of which enough land is available.
          • High grade haematite iron is brought from Kemang Gundi mines, Chikmaglur.
          • Availability of power from Saraswati power project.
          • Limestone is available at Bhundi Guda.
          • Shilong and Chitradung supply Manganese.
        4. Bhilai Steel Plant: 1957, in Durgadist. of M.P; in collaboration with USSR. Why at Bhilai:
          • Rich hematite iron are from Dhalli Rajhara mine.
          • Coal is obtained from Korba and Kargali fields.
          • Limestone was from Nandini mines.
          • Bhandhara (Maharashtra) and Balaghat (M.P.) supply Manganese.
          • Korba Thermal Power supplies electricity. Dolomite from Bilaspur.
        5. Rourkela Steel Plant: Hindustan Steel Ltd. is the plant in Sundergarh dist. of Orissa, set up in collaboration with W. Germany in 1959. Why in Rourkela:
          • Iron ore from Sundergarh and Keonjhar.
          • Coal from Jharia and Thalcher.
          • Hydro electricity from Hirakud.
          • Manganese from Barajmada. Dolomite from Baradwar.
          • Limestone from Purnabani.
        6. Durgapur Steel Plant: in Burdwan dist. (W.B), established in 1959 with the help of U.K.; project was started in 1962.Why at Durgapur:
          • Iron ore from Bolani mines in Mayurbhanj.
          • Coal from Jharia and Raniganj.
          • Limestone from Birmitrapur in Sundergarh distt. Manganese from Keonjhar. Dolomite from Birmitrapur.
          • Kolkata Asansol rail network.
          • Manganese from Keonjhar.
        7. Bokaro: collaboration with USSR, started production in 1972.Why Bokaro:
          • Iron ore from Kiriburu (Orissa).
          • Coal from Jharia.
          • Limestone from Palamu.
          • Electricity from DVC.
        8. Salem Steel plant 1982, became commercial.
        9. Vishakhapatnam Steel project (Rashtriya Ispat Nigam) 1982, Coastal location.
        10. Vijaynagar Steel Plant. Paradeep Steel Plant.
    • Aluminum Industry:Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, mallable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals. It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires. It has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
      • About 50% of total aluminum in India is consumed in the generation and distribution of electricity.
      • In 1937, Aluminium Corporation of India was formed at Jay Kay Nagar in W.Bengal.
      • In 1943, Indian Aluminium Company Limited (INDAL) started and the plant was set up in Allupuram (Kerala).
      • During 2nd FYP, two more plants were established: (1) Indian Aluminium Company, estd. in Hirakud (Orissa); (2) Hindustan Aluminium Corp. (HINDALCO), Renukut (U.P.)
      • In 1965, BALCO established at Korba in M.P.
      • Another plant was established at Ratnagiri in 1975.
      • In 1965, MALCO (Madras Al Company Limited) was established in Mettur.
      • In 1981, NALCO (National Al Comp. Ltd.) was established at Daman Jodi, near Jaypore at Koraput Dist. of Orissa.
      • NALCO is the largest
      • In 198889, another unit was set up at Ankul in district Dhenkanal (Orissa).
    • Copper Industry:
      • In 1924, Indian Copper Company (ICC) was set up
      • In 1924, a plant was set up in Singhbhum (Ghatshila), Bihar.
      • In 1967, Hindustan Copper Limited came into being, took over the work of ICC in 1972, since then, the HCL is sole major producer of copper in India.
      • Copper is produced at two units: 1. Maubandhar, near Ghatshila; 2.Khetri in Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan.
      • Maubandhar receives copper ore from Mausabani, Rakha, Dhobani, Rajdah, Tampohar, Turamdih.
      • Khetri copper complex at Khetri has been erected by HCL, production started from 1974 onwards.It receives copper ore from Khetri, Kolihan, Chandmari, Dariba (Alwar),etc.Malanjkhand mines at Balaghat, M.P. also supplies copperore to Khetri.
      • A new project is comingup in Agnigundala in Guntur, AP.
      • Per capita copper consumption in India is 250 gm.
      • Presently, India produces only l/12th part of its requirement rest is imported from Zambia, Zaire, Chile and USA

        Chemical Industries:
        The Chemical industry in India is fast growing and diversifying. It contributes approximately 3 per cent of the GDP. It is the third largest in Asia and occupies the twelfth place in the world in term of its size. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units. Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda. These industries are widely spread over the country.
        Fertiliser Industry:
        The fertiliser industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilisers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilisers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilisers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K). The third, i.e. potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form. India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers. There are 57 fertiliser units manufacturing nitrogenous and complex nitrogenous fertilisers, 29 for urea and 9 for producing ammonium sulphate as a byproduct and 68 other small units produce single superphosphate. At present, there are 10 public sector undertakings and one in cooperative sector at Hazira in Gujarat under the Fertiliser Corporation of India.
        • 1906, first superphosphate factory was set up at Ranipet in T.N.
        • In 1951, Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCI), set up a plant at Sindri.
        • Public Sector Fertilizer Co.FCI incorporated in 1961; it has 4 units:
          1. Sindri;
          2. Gorakhpur;
          3. Talcher;
          4. Ramagundum (A.P).
        • NFL established in 23 Aug. 1974, has 5 units:
          1. Nangal: Calcium almunium nitrate and Urea;
          2. Bhatinda;
          3. Panipat;
          4. Vijaypur.It is largest producer of Nitrogenous fertilizer.
        • Fertilizers and Chemicals Travancore Ltd.(FACT) has three units:
          1. Udyog Mandal;
          2. Two units at Kochi.
        • Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. it is a gas based fertilizer plant at Thai.
        • Hindustan Fertilizers Corp. Ltd.(HFCL): it has
          1. 5 units at Namrup (Assam)
          2. one at Durgapur (W.B)
          3. one at Barauni.
        • Madras Fertilizers Ltd.: it is a joint venture of India and Iran; established at Manali near Chennai.
        • Pyrites Phosphates and Chemicals Ltd. (PPCL): set up in March 1960, units at:
          1. Amjher (Bihar, manufactures super phosphate)
          2. Salodipura (Rajasthan for exploration and production of Pyrites)
          3. Mussorie (Uttaranchal where mining of rock phosphate ore is done).
        • Project and Development India Ltd. (PDIL): formerly Fertilizer Planning and Development India Ltd., famous for engineering.

        Cement Industry: This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.
        • The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
        • At present, India ranks 4th after China, Japan, and USA.

        Paper Industries:
        • In India paper is made from: 62% bamboo (a cellulosic raw material); 79% sabai grass; bagasse; rice and wheat straw; eucalyptus; pine; mulberry.
        • Chemical used: caustic soda, soda ash, sodium sulphate, chlorine, calcium bisulphate, sulphuric acid, raisin and clay, lime, ferric alumina, ammonium.
        • One tonne of paper production requires 3.54 tonnes of coal.
        • First factory (1816), in Chennai; second (1832), in Serampore, both failed. Third factory (1870), Royal Bengal Paper Mills, Ballyganj, near Kolkata. (1879) Lucknow, (1882), Titagarh (1887, Pune (1892), Raniganj (1892), Kakinara(1918),Naihati (1951). There are as many as 17 mills News Print:
          • First factory (1955), Nepanagar in Hoshangabad (M.P).
          • Second factory (1981), Mysore Paper Mills, Shimoga, Karnataka.
          • Third is 1982, Hindustan Paper Mills, Vellore, Kottaiyam, Kerala.
          • Fourth, 1985, Tamil Nadu News Print and Paper Ltd., Pugalur in Tiruchirapalli.
          • Till 1996, there were 26 news print mills were there in India.
        • Per capita paper consumption in India is 3 kg.
        • Pulp and waste paper is imported from Norway, Sweden, Canada, Holland.
        • .
        • Paper board, Newsprint is imposed from Poland, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia Republic and Canada.
        • Problems of Paper Industry:
          1. Scarcity of raw materials because of degradation of forest;
          2. Costly unconventional raw material.
          3. Growing consciousness for the preservation of forests and maintenance of ecology balance and biodiversity.
          4. Very low rate of consumption, population 16% of world, paper production 1% of world.
          5. Small size of uneconomic manufacturing units.

        Drugs and Pharmaceuticals:
        • Public Sector Units: India Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd (IDPL): Established in 1961 (5th April); has 5 plants:
          1. Rishikesh synthetic drugs.
          2. Chennai surgical instruments.
          3. Gurgaon formulations.
          4. Muzaffarpur drugs and chemicals (intermediate)
        • IDPL has 3 subsidiaries:
          1. Rajasthan Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (RPDL)
          2. U.P Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (UPDL), Lucknow
          3. Orissa D&P Ltd., Bhubaneshwar
        • Hindustan Antibiotics Limited in 1954:
          1. Maharashtra Antibiotics and Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Nagpur;
          2. Karnataka A&P Ltd., Bangalore;
          3. Manipur A&P Ltd, Imphal Bengal Immunity Limited (BIL), Kolkata.
        • Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (BCPL), Kolkata.
        • Smith Stanistret Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (SSPL), Kolkata.

        • First factory was established in 1941 in UP.
        • Rawmaterial used: sodaash, feldspar, limestone, dolomite, manganese dioxide, barium oxide, sulphur and copper.
        • Distribution:
          • Uttar Pradesh:Abour 100 factories; important centres are: Ferozabad(Agra), Bahzoi, Naini, Hirangau, Shokohabad, Hathras, Sasni, Jaunpur.
          • West Bengal: 34 factories; important places: Kolkata, Howrah, Raniganj, Belgachia, Belgharia, Bellur, Sitarampur, Rishra, Durgapur, Asansol (gets sandstone from Mangalghat and Palaghat).
          • Maharashtra: 22 factories; Important centres: Mumbai, Talegaon, Satara, Nagpur, Kolhapur (bottles).

        • China clay is found in Rajmahal Hills (Bihar).
        • First factory established in Patharghat (Bihar).
        • Second, Barn & Co. Raniganj (W. Bengal).
        • Centre: Wankaner, Thanagarh, Ranipet, Roopnarayanpur, Jabalpur, Nazarbagh, Gwalior, Jaipur.
        • India exports to: Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait; imports from: China & Japan.

        • First factory was established in Ahmedabad in 1921.
        • Western India Match Co. (WIPCO) 1923; has 5 units: produces 65% of India's production:
          1. Baraeli
          2. Kolkata
          3. Chennai
          4. Ambarnath, Mumbai
          5. Dubri, Assam.



        Major Concentration


        Jharia, Raniganj

        Tamil Nadu:

        Ramnathpuram, Tirunavelli, Chennai, Chingalput.


        Ahmedabad, Petlad, Ambarnath


        Pune, Thane, Chanda, Mumbai.


        Barelli, Meerut, Allahabad, Varanasi






        Hyderabad, Warrangal





        Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh:

        Bilaspur, Jabalpur.

        • The insect, Cerria Laca produces Laca; it lives in trees.
        • Climatic requirements: temp. 12°C and rainfall-150cm.
        • Stick lac is its crude form (like resin).
        • Main producer: FCL's Trombay Unit.

        Automobile Industry:
        • First started by General Motors India Ltd. Mumbai, 1928.
        • Ford Motors in 1930, Chennai.
        • Daewoo, 1995 (Korea), Noida.
        • Premier Automobiles, Kurla Mumbai, 1947.
        • Hindustan Motors Ltd., Kolkata, 1948.
        • Maruti Udyog Ltd., Gurgaon, 1983.
        • TELCO, Jamshedpur.
        • Surajpur Light Motor Vehicle (Ghaziabad).
        • Motor-cycles Dharuhara (Haryana); Akundi, (Pune); Hosur (Tamil Nadu); Faridabad.
        • Scooters Lucknow; Satara; (Akundi) Pune; Panki; Odhav
        • India ranks second in two wheelers after China.
        • Tractors are manufactured at Faridabad, Pinjore, Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai

        • First manufacturing factory was set up in 1940, Mumbai.
        • The chief centres of bicycle production are Mumbai, Asansol, Sonipat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar and Ludhiana
        • India exports bicycles to Pakistan, Afghanistan and Srilanka.

        • 1940; Hindustan Aircraft Ltd., Bangalore.
        • 1964, it merged with Aeronautics India Ltd. to form Hindustan Aeronautic Ltd. (HAL) in Bangalore.
        • HAL has three divisions:
          1. MIG Complex, Nasik;
          2. Koraput;
          3. Hyderabad.

        Railway Equipment:
        • Chittaranjan Locomotives Works (CLW), Chittaranjan, Burdwan dist., W. Bengal, 1950. It produced first engine in 1952.
        • Diesel Locomotives Works at Varanasi, 1964.
        • The Tata Engineering and Locomotive Works (TELCO), Jamshedpur in 1952.
        • The Integral Coach Factory at Perambur near Chennai with Swiss collaboration in 1955.
        • Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala, 1958.

        • India ranks second in Asia next to Japan in Shipbuilding
        • Hindustan Shipyards, Vishakhapatnam, setup by M/ S Scindia Steam Navigation Company, 1941. It produced first ship in 1948.(Largest Ship building unit)
        • Cochin Shipyard Ltd., Kochi, 1976.
        • Garden Reach Workshops, Kolkata.
        • Mazgaon Dock, Mumbai, builds esp. for Indian Navy.
        • Goa Shipyards, builds fibreglass boats.

        • Machine Tools:
          • In 1930s, Kirloskar Bros. Ltd. but, the first large scale modern factory was Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd (HMT) in 1953 at Bangalore with Swiss collaboration.It has multiunit: Pinjore, Haryana (1963),Kalamessary in Kerala (1964), Hyderabad (1965),
            Ajmer (grinding unit).
          • Another is Heavy Machine Tools Plant at Ranchi, in 1966.
          • Third is, Parag Tools Limited at Secunderabad.
          • National Instrument Factory,Jadavpur, Calcutta.
          • The Instrumentation Limited at Kota and Palaghat.
        • Heavy Mechanical Equipments:
          • Heavy Engineering Corporation, Ranchi, 1958.
          • Mining and Allied Machinery Corp. Ltd. at Durgapur.
          • Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd., setup in 1947.
          • Triveni Structural Ltd. at Naini, Allahabad with the assistance of Austria.
          • Bharat Heavy Plate and Vessels Ltd. established in 1956 at Vishakhapatnam.
          • Messers Jessop & Co. Ltd., Calcutta.
          • Richardson & Cruddas Ltd. Mumbai.
          • Larsen & Toubro Ltd., Powai, Mumbai.
        • Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry:
          • 1956, Heavy Electricals Ltd.
          • 1964,Bharat Heavy Electricals; later both merged to form BHEL.
          • BHEL exports boilers to Malaysia, Libya and Egypt.
          • It has six units:
            1. Bhopal,
            2. Tiruchirapalli,
            3. Ramchandrapuram (near Hyderabad),
            4. Bangalore,
            5. Jammu and Haridwar.
          • Electric fans:
            1. Mumbai,
            2. Kolkata,
            3. Chennai,
            4. Delhi,
            5. Secunderabad.

        • Pesticides are produced by a number of units. The important ones are the Hindustan Insectcides Ltd units at Delhi and Alwaye.

        Leather Goods:
        • Hides and skins are available in abundance. The chief centres of production of leather goods are Agra, Kanpur, Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi

        Information Technology and Electronics Industry:
        • The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, computers and manyother equipments required by the telecommunication industry. Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore. 18 software technology parks provide single window service and high data communication facility to software experts.

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